Todd has published over 210 scientific articles. His work has been cited over 32,000 times. He is a regular contributor to Psychology Today.

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NOTE: These scales are available for free use in science or practice. No need to contact us to use them. Links are provided to download PDF documents.

Psychological Flexibility

Personalized Psychological Flexibility Index

NOTE: download a copy of the measure here in MSWord.

Kashdan, T.B., Disabato, D.J., Goodman, F.R., Doorley, J.D., & McKnight, P.E. (2020). Understanding psychological flexibility: A multimethod exploration of pursuing valued goals despite the presence of distress. Psychological Assessment, 32, 829-850.

Curiosity Scales

The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale-Revised (5DCR)

Kashdan, T.B., †Disabato, D.J., †Goodman, F.R., & McKnight, P.E. (2021). The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR): Briefer subscales while separating overt and covert social curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences

NOTE: download a copy of the measure here in MSWord. See the article above with correlates and psychometrics. Stop using the 5DC. The revised scale has stronger psychometrics, each subscale is shorter, and social curiosity has been split into overt and covert dimensions.

The M-Workplace Curiosity Scale

Kashdan, T.B., †Goodman, F.R., †Disabato, D.J., McKnight, P.E., †Kelso, K., & Naughton, C. (2021). Curiosity has comprehensive benefits in the workplace: Developing and validating a multidimensional workplace curiosity scale in United States and German employees. Personality and Individual Differences

NOTE: download a copy of the measure here in MSWord.

The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC)

Kashdan, T.B.Stiksma, M.C.,†Disabato, D., McKnight, P.E., Bekier, J., Kaji, J., & Lazarus, R. (2018). The five-dimensional curiosity scale: Capturing the bandwidth of curiosity and identifying four unique subgroups of curious people. Journal of Research in Personality,  73, 130-149. NOTE: download a copy of the measure here in MSWord.

Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II

Kashdan, T.B., Gallagher, M.W., Silvia, P.J., Winterstein, B.P., Breen, W.E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M.F. (2009). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and initial psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.

Curiosity and Exploration Inventory

Kashdan, T.B., Rose, P., & Fincham, F.D. (2004). Curiosity and exploration: Facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 291-305.

Purpose in Life

Everyday effort and progress toward a purpose in life

Kashdan, T.B., & McKnight, P.E. (2013). Commitment to a purpose in life: An antidote to the suffering by individuals with social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 13, 1150-1159.

See p.1153

Experiential Avoidance

Momentary experiential avoidance (for experiments or experience sampling studies)

Kashdan, T.B., Goodman, F.R., Machell, K.A., Kleiman, E.M., Monfort, S.S., Ciarrochi, J., & Nezlek, J.B. (2014). A contextual approach to experiential avoidance and social anxiety: Evidence from an experimental interaction and daily interactions of people with social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 14, 769-781.

Evidence for anxiety and experiential avoidance as two separate but related factors for Study 1 can be found on p. 773 of the results. For a replication in Study 2, see Table 3 and on p.9. NOTE: for Table 3, there is an error and the second anxiety item should be: ““I was worried that I would say or do the wrong things.”

Kashdan, T.B., Farmer, A., Adams, L., Ferssizidis, P., McKnight, P.E., & Nezlek, J.B. (2013). Distinguishing healthy adults from people with social anxiety disorder: Evidence for the value of experiential avoidance and positive emotions in everyday social interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 645-655.

First paper that uses the experiential avoidance scale in Kashdan et al. (2014)


Affective Styles – Habitual attempts to conceal or suppress affect (Concealing subscale), a general ability to manage, adjust, and work with emotions as needed (Adjusting subscale), and an accepting and tolerant attitude toward emotions (Tolerating subscale).

Hofmann, S.G., & Kashdan, T.B. (2010). The Affective Style Questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 255-263.


Personality Strengths

Perceived Benefits and Costs of Romantic Partner Strengths

Kashdan, T.B., Blalock, D.V., Young, K.C., Machell, K.A., Monfort, S.S., McKnight, P.E., & Ferssizidis, P. (in press). Personality strengths in romantic relationships: Measuring perceptions of benefits and costs and their impact on personal and relational well-being. Psychological Assessment

Strength Balance

Young, K.C., Kashdan, T.B., & Macatee, R. (2014). Strength balance and implicit strength measurement: New considerations for research on strengths of character. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 17-24.

See p. 4 for the operationalization of strength balance

Speaking & Workshops

The Art of Insubordination