Understanding the psychological conditions that lead to well-being.
We create research for public consumption that directly applies to health in daily life and the workplace. Our most pressing missions include: designing interventions for people to be more emotionally agile when confronted with potential social opportunities and threats, discovering what leads to resilience during and in the aftermath of adversity, and uncovering psychological factors that increase the probability of individual and societal well-being.
High-quality research is about asking interesting questions that are getting insufficient attention and testing them with the best methods possible.
Our team has created widely used multidimensional measures of curiosity, psychological flexibility, and well-being. Our conceptual models and research offer a nuanced understanding of human potential, shifting the emphasis from feeling good to doing good. By appreciating the wide range of psychological tools in our arsenal, we can be flexible, capable of fulfillment and success in a wider variety of situations.
- Better understand and improve civil, open-minded discourse in groups
- Understand how curiosity can be harnessed to improve tolerance of different ideas and perspectives
- Improve our understanding of well-being and resilience including how to improve the odds of this trajectory
- Better understand and facilitate innovation in groups
ESSENTIAL PUBLISHED PAPERS
We’ve contributed over 220 scientific articles and counting to the field of Psychology. Here are our top articles. See the full archive
At the core of science is high-quality measurement. We devote great effort to create the best possible innovations in our Well-Being Lab. Our work is used not only by scientists trying to understand human psychology but practitioners, organizations, and policy makers interested in the effectiveness of interventions.
Understanding psychological flexibility: A multi-method exploration of pursuing valued goals despite the presence of distress.
Psychological flexibility: What we know, what we don’t know, and what we think we know.
Unpacking emotion differentiation: Transforming unpleasant experience by perceiving distinctions in negativity.
Psychological flexibility as a fundamental aspect of health.
The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR): Briefer subscales while separating overt and covert social curiosity.
DOWNLOAD SCALE See the above article with correlates and psychometrics. Stop using the 5DC. The revised scale has stronger psychometrics, each subscale is shorter, and social curiosity has been split into overt and covert dimensions.
Curiosity has comprehensive benefits in the workplace: Developing and validating a multidimensional workplace curiosity scale in United States and German employees. DOWNLOAD SCALE
The five-dimensional curiosity scale: Capturing the bandwidth of curiosity and identifying four unique subgroups of curious people.
Interesting things and curious people: Exploration and engagement as transient states and enduring strengths.
Commitment to a purpose in life: An antidote to the suffering by individuals with social anxiety disorder.
Purpose in life as a system that creates and sustains health and well-being: An integrative, testable theory.
Origins of purpose in life: Refining our understanding of a life well lived. [Special Issue on Positive Psychology]
Understanding the search for meaning in life: Personality, cognitive style, and the dynamic between seeking and experiencing meaning.
The curious neglect of high functioning after psychopathology: The case of depression.
Different types of well-being? A cross-cultural examination of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being.
Personality, effective goal-striving, and enhanced well-being: Comparing 10 candidate personality strengths.
Reconsidering happiness: The costs of distinguishing between hedonics and eudaimonia.
†Goodman, F.R., †Kelso, K., Wiernik, B., & Kashdan, T.B. (in press). Social comparisons and social anxiety in daily life: An experience-sampling approach.
Social anxiety. – Noba Project
Sexual healing: Daily diary investigation of the benefits of intimate and pleasurable sexual activity in socially anxious adults.
Distinguishing healthy adults from people with social anxiety disorder: Evidence for the value of experiential avoidance and positive emotions in everyday social interactions.
Whether, how, and when social anxiety shapes positive experiences and events: A self-regulatory framework and treatment implications.
The darker side of social anxiety: When aggressive impulsivity prevails over shy inhibition.
All measure here available for free use in science or practice. No need to ask!
Personalized Psychological Flexibility Index DOWNLOAD
Kashdan, T.B., Disabato, D.J., Goodman, F.R., Doorley, J.D., & McKnight, P.E. (2020). Understanding psychological flexibility: A multimethod exploration of pursuing valued goals despite the presence of distress. Psychological Assessment, 32, 829-850.
The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale-Revised (5DCR) DOWNLOAD
Kashdan, T.B., †Disabato, D.J., †Goodman, F.R., & McKnight, P.E. (2021). The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR): Briefer subscales while separating overt and covert social curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences
Article above with correlates and psychometrics. Stop using the 5DC. The revised scale has stronger psychometrics, each subscale is shorter, and social curiosity has been split into overt and covert dimensions.
The M-Workplace Curiosity Scale DOWNLOAD
Kashdan, T.B., †Goodman, F.R., †Disabato, D.J., McKnight, P.E., †Kelso, K., & Naughton, C. (2021). Curiosity has comprehensive benefits in the workplace: Developing and validating a multidimensional workplace curiosity scale in United States and German employees. Personality and Individual Differences
The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale (5DC)
Kashdan, T.B., †Stiksma, M.C.,†Disabato, D., McKnight, P.E., Bekier, J., Kaji, J., & Lazarus, R. (2018). The five-dimensional curiosity scale: Capturing the bandwidth of curiosity and identifying four unique subgroups of curious people. Journal of Research in Personality, 73, 130-149. NOTE: download a copy of the measure here in MSWord.
Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II
Kashdan, T.B., Gallagher, M.W., Silvia, P.J., Winterstein, B.P., Breen, W.E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M.F. (2009). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and initial psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.
Curiosity and Exploration Inventory
Kashdan, T.B., Rose, P., & Fincham, F.D. (2004). Curiosity and exploration: Facilitating positive subjective experiences and personal growth opportunities. Journal of Personality Assessment, 82, 291-305.
Purpose in Life
Everyday effort and progress toward a purpose in life
Kashdan, T.B., & McKnight, P.E. (2013). Commitment to a purpose in life: An antidote to the suffering by individuals with social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 13, 1150-1159. See p.1153
Momentary experiential avoidance (for experiments or experience sampling studies)
Kashdan, T.B., Goodman, F.R., Machell, K.A., Kleiman, E.M., Monfort, S.S., Ciarrochi, J., & Nezlek, J.B. (2014). A contextual approach to experiential avoidance and social anxiety: Evidence from an experimental interaction and daily interactions of people with social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 14, 769-781.
Evidence for anxiety and experiential avoidance as two separate but related factors for Study 1 can be found on p. 773 of the results. For a replication in Study 2, see Table 3 and on p.9. NOTE: for Table 3, there is an error and the second anxiety item should be: ““I was worried that I would say or do the wrong things.”
Kashdan, T.B., Farmer, A., Adams, L., Ferssizidis, P., McKnight, P.E., & Nezlek, J.B. (2013). Distinguishing healthy adults from people with social anxiety disorder: Evidence for the value of experiential avoidance and positive emotions in everyday social interactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 645-655.
First paper that uses the experiential avoidance scale in Kashdan et al. (2014)
Affective Styles Habitual attempts to conceal or suppress affect (Concealing subscale), a general ability to manage, adjust, and work with emotions as needed (Adjusting subscale), and an accepting and tolerant attitude toward emotions (Tolerating subscale).
Hofmann, S.G., & Kashdan, T.B. (2010). The Affective Style Questionnaire: Development and psychometric properties. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 32, 255-263.
Perceived Benefits and Costs of Romantic Partner Strengths
Kashdan, T.B., Blalock, D.V., Young, K.C., Machell, K.A., Monfort, S.S., McKnight, P.E., & Ferssizidis, P. (in press). Personality strengths in romantic relationships: Measuring perceptions of benefits and costs and their impact on personal and relational well-being. Psychological Assessment
Young, K.C., Kashdan, T.B., & Macatee, R. (2014). Strength balance and implicit strength measurement: New considerations for research on strengths of character. Journal of Positive Psychology, 10, 17-24. See p. 4 for the operationalization of strength balance